Studying the structuration of the Universe consists in studying how galaxies, galaxy clusters, stars and planets form and evolve. The starting point of the structuration of the Universe is well known: the tiny inhomogeneities in the diffuse cosmological background, as observed by WMAP and more recently by Planck. The theoretical framework of the studies is the so-called “cosmological concordance model”, with its two components: dark energy and dark matter. Then, observing the structuration of the Universe is also a way to test the cosmological model. Structuration of the Universe and observational cosmology are strongly interleaved. The studies are made from multi-wavelenghts observations and multi-scales numerical simulations.