IGR J17091-3624

Other name = 1SAX J1709-36; SAX J1709.1-3624

Type Mass/distance Radio Counterpart Infrared/Optical Counterpart
R.A. (J2000) Dec. (J2000) References (position) R.A. (J2000) Dec. (J2000) References (position)
Black Hole candidate
6 Msun (?) / >11 kpc 17h 09m 07.61s -36o 24' 25.6" (±0.1") Corbel et al. 2011 ATel 3167 17h 09m 07.62s -36o 24' 25.35" Torres et al. 2011 ATel 3150
Published Papers
Miscellaneous :
Capitanio et al. 2006 (ApJ):
  • confirm the low absorption (Nh<1e22cm-2)
  • Comptonised spectrum,
  • second epoch shows the presence of bright thermal component in soft X-rays.
  • transition form a hard state to a soft state.
  • 3rd epoch => spectra can be fitted with a Comptonised model: transition back to the hard state.
  • Hysteresis in transitions
Bazzano et al. 2006 (ApJ):
  • 11.6+/-0.6 mCrab in 100-150 keV.
Kennea & Capitanio 2007 ATel 1140:
  • Swift observations => absorbed disk blackbody, with NH=0.51e22 cm-2, and kT = 2.1 keV.
  • 0.2-10 keV unabsorbed flux from the source ~1e-10erg/s/cm2
  • power law yields a good fit, with parameters similar to those observed in the past during a hard state.
  • 0.2-10 keV unabsorbed flux ~9 E-10 erg/s/cm2
  • Not associated with tentative radio counterpart of Rupen et al., Pandey et al.
Chaty et al. 2008:
  • Infrared observations
  • 2MASS source formerly suggested to be counterpart is outside Swift error box. Source is NOT the F8 V star.
  • 2 candidates in NIR images, favour 1 as the counterpart
  • J=16.73, H=15.83, Ks=15.36
  • Rstar/Dstar very low => maximum radius 12.8 Rsun
  • SED fitting => Av=6.8, T=6900 K
  • Not a Giant, nor a superGiant
  • Probable LMXB in Gal. Bulge
Capitanio et al. 2008:
  • Quiescence with upper limit on the luminosity of L< 7e32 erg/s => source most probably hosts a black hole.
  • Begining of a new outburst seen with Swift.
  • Refute the previously suggested radio counterpart for this source.
  • Re analysis of VLA data => new radio counterpart at a position consistent with that of the Swift source.
  • Radio spectrum is inverted (ie self absorbed): typical of the hard states of black hole.
  • Swift spectrum: hard spectral state
  • Source then softens, black body component needed in fits
2011 Outburst
Krimm et al. 2011; Krimm & Kennea 2011 ATel 3144 and ATel 3148:
  • Renewed activity seen with Swift/BAT
  • Swift observation => No flux from IGR J17098-3628
  • IGR J17091-3624 is strongly detected in the XRT image
  • Spectrum: absorbed power law NH = 1.10 x 1022 cm-2 and Γ= 1.73
  • The source is not detected by UVOT
Torres et al. 2011 ATel 3150:
  • Detection of the optical and near-infrared counterparts
  • I = 18.35 during outburst while in the 2005 images I = 20.32
  • Detection of a Ks=16.65 source consistent with the optical counterpart.
  • Finding chart here (courtesy M.A.P. Torres)
Corbel et al. 2011 ATel 3167:
  • ATCA observation => presence of a single radio source within the X-ray error circle consistent with the optical counterpart
  • Flux densities of ~1.3 mJy at 5.5 and 9 GHz => consistent with flat radio spectrum, usually associated self absorbed compact jets
  • Swift XRT spectra closest to the radio observation: 2011-02-09
    NH = 0.72 x 1022 cm-2, Γ = 1.41
    NH = 0.74 x 1022 cm-2, Γ = 1.52
  • Parameters + inferred luminosity (at 8 kpc) => in the radio/X-ray correlation diagram between the standard track and the track possibly indicative of a radiatively efficient black hole in the hard state
Rodriguez et al. 2011 ATel 3168:
  • Timing analysis of 4 RXTE observations
  • Data contaminated by GX 349+2, but manage to roughly correct its influence
  • All PDS but the one from the first observation => ~0.1 Hz QPO, with an increasing RMS amplitude (from 3.2% to 4.5%).
  • Lend further credence to the fact that IGR J17091-3624 is a black hole binary in a hard state
Shaposhnikov 2011 ATel 3179:
  • Fast evolution of the QPO seen in this source: 0.1 Hz QPO is observed at 0.34, 0.45 and 1.66 Hz in the three most recent observations (Feb 18,19 and 20, 2011)
  • QPO harmonic also observed at ~3.3 Hz (last observation)
  • Hardness is seen to decrease=> spectrum is getting softer
  • Behavior consistent with transition to the soft state
Del Santo et al. 2011 ATel 3203:
  • Swift and INTEGRAL observations of Feb 28, 2011
  • XRT data alone need a disc in the model fit
  • Joint 0.8-200 keV XRT+IBIS/ISGRI spectrum <=> absorbed (disc + powerlaw) with NH~1.00 x 1022 cm-2, kTdisc~1.0 keV and Γ~2.2
  • No high-energy cut-off requested up to 200 keV
  • Presently in the canonical high/soft spectral state of BHCs
Altamirano et al. 2011 ATel 3225:
  • Discovery of a ~10 mHz QPO most likely from IGR J17091-3624
  • QPO is only intermittently visible with an average 2-60 keV fractional rms amplitude of 5.3%
  • Fractional rms amplitude increases from ~3.5% below 5 keV to a maximum of ~10% in the 15-30 keV range
  • 2 QPOs at 2.3 Hz and 8.0Hz, with fractional rms amplitudes of 10.9% and 6.7%, are found in the same obs.
Kuulkers et al. 2011 ATel 3229:
  • INTEGRAL => IGR J17098-3628 is not active, while J17091-3624 is
  • mHz QPO is from IGR J17091-3624
Altamirano et al. 2011 ATel 3230:
  • mHz QPOs have increased in frequency by a factor of ~3
  • PCA light curve displays flaring events occurring at a rate of 25-30 mHz. Wide diversity in the flare profiles
  • Flares are also observed with Swift/XRT (IGR J17098-3628 not detected by Swift)
  • Reminiscent (while of lower flux) of the "heartbeat" oscillations seen in the black hole candidate GRS 1915+105.
Pahari et al. 2011 ATel 3266:
  • Multiple peaks with evolving frequencies in RXTE observations
  • Comparison to the class rho of GRS 1915+105
Altamirano et al. 2011 ATel 3299:
  • Heartbeat oscillations observed in all (but 3) observations performed since March 19th 2011
  • Frequency of the (heartbeat) oscillations increased with time (up to ~100 mHz 2011/04/18)
  • Also associated with a loss of regularity.
  • On 04/19: broad variety of complex behavior similar to the class "beta" of GRS 1915+105 (different timescale)
  • QPO at 5-8 Hz occurring only during low intensity periods are also present in this obs.
Pahari et al. 2011 ATel 3418:
  • In rho-type oscillations both small and large amplitude oscillations are seen
  • Intervals of large bursts and short bursts appearing alternatively
  • Characteristic time scale is ~40.25 sec
  • Peak-to-dip count rate ratio ~3-5 for large bursts ; 1.5-2 for short bursts
  • From 26 May 2011 to 03 June 2011 # of large burst intervals and their maximum peaks seen to decrease=>disappeared on 04 Jun 2011.
Rodriguez et al. 2011 A&A:
  • 1st four simultaneous multi-wavelength observations (ATCAn Swift, INTEGRAL, RXTE) of this source, during the 2011 outburst
  • Hard shard state in the first 2 observations, soft intermediate state later
  • Luminosity at the state transition => distance to the source of ~11 to ~17 kpc (assuming BH mass of 10 Msun).
  • The radio vs X-ray luminosity properties similar to other black hole binaries if distance greater than 11 kpc
  • Radio => Preferred distance of 17 kpc.
  • Observed radio-X-ray behaviour more typical to that of GX 339-4 or H1743-322 than that of GRS 1915+105
Pahari et al. 2011 ATel 3667:
  • RXTE light curves: dips lasting 20-30s similar to GRS 1915+105 in ω and θ classes
  • Peak in hard color coincident with an intensity dip, instead of usual (in BHB) accompanying dip in hard color
Altamirano et al. 2011 (ApJ):
  • Detailed analysis of the 2011 RXTE observations
  • Identify 7 patterns of variability in light curves, similar to classes seen in GRS 1915+105
  • Typical timescales of variability & brightness respectively shorter and fainter compared to 1915+105
  • Either models based on Eddington Luminosity fail for IGR J17091-3624, or distance well above 20 kpc, or harbours a very light black holes
King et al. 2012 (ApJ):
  • Observations with Chandra
  • High resolution spectra =>presence of absorption line attributed to a fast disk wind component
  • Simultaneous EVLA observation => jet activity quenched during Chandra observations
  • Presence of a disk wind when in soft state compatible with what observed in other such sources
Altamirano et al. 2012 (ApJ):
  • Discovery of a high frequency QPO
  • Frequency = 64.8 Hz very similar to the 67 HZ QPO of GRS 1915+105
  • Potential feature at 164 Hz, strengthening the similarity to the 1915's HFQPOs
  • Implication of these findings are discussed in the view of the potential high distance, or low mass BH in the IGR source
Rebusco et al. 2012 (A&A):
  • HFQPO due to non-linear resonances of oscillating modes in the disc, in 5:2 ratio => BH mass ~ 6 Msun (comparison with 1915+105)
Pahari et al. 2012 (MNRAS):
  • Analysis of RXTE data of the 2011 outburst
  • Identification and comprehensive characterisation of 2 variability classes never seen in any other black hole binaries, including GRS 1915+105
Capitanio et al. 2012 (MNRAS):
  • analysis of the long term Swift and INTEGRAL monitoring
  • Up to the transition to the soft state => HID and rms-intensity diagram show similar pattern to other sources
  • After behaviour more similar to that of GRS 1915+105
  • Spectral analysis of the data => heartbeat pattern corresponds to rapid emptying and refiling of the inner region of an accretion disc.
  • In addition to being at a large distance, the source may also have a large inclination, which would explain its faintness.
Bodaghee et al. 2012 (ApJ):
  • Chandra observation => refined X-ray position
  • Source position compatible with all previously suggested counterparts => securing source as a μquasar
Wijnands et al. 2012 (MNRAS):
  • Re-analysis of 2 XMM observations during quiescence
  • Contrary to what previously claimed source detected at 0.5-10 keV fluxes of 9 and 12 e-14erg/cm2/s.
  • In both observations Γ~1.6 (absorption fixed).
  • Assuming relation between quiescent luminosity and orbital period holds => orbital period between >4 d (at 10 kpc) and tens of days in case of a larger distance
Rao & Vadawale 2012 (ApJ):
  • Analysis of simultaneous RXTE and XMM observations
  • Phase resolved spectroscopy of the ρ-like type of variability
  • Comparison to GRS 1915+105 and investigation of differences
  • Source is a high inclination system (> 53deg)
  • Low luminosity explained only if the spin of the BH has a low (or even negative) value, in a distant and light (<5 Msun) BH
Reis et al. ATel 4382:
  • XMM spectral analysis => presence of a number of absorption lines and a distinct feature at 7.1 keV
  • Photoionization model provides a good fit, but a relativistic iron line model provides a better modeling
  • System probably in a soft intermediate state during this obs
  • Disk temperature ~1.1 keV and a power law Γ~1.9
  • Analysis of the broadened iron line => inclination to the disc < 62°ree; with emissivity index Q<7.4
  • Inner radius is constrained to be <2.3GM/c2 => black hole with a spin a*>~0.9 (in contradiction with Rao & Vadawale)
Pahari et al. 2013, 2014 (ApJ & MNRAS):
  • Spectral and timing studies of the RXTE observations with cycles and in depth comparison with GRS 1915+105
  • The properties of hard X-ray dips of 17091 consistent with those of 1915's abrupt transitions
  • Correlation between X-ray cycle time and time spent in hard dip in the two sources
  • Difference between hard dips and peak spectra due to variation of the (p-free) accretion disk
  • Oscillations due to limit cycle beaviour of unstable radiation pressure dominated inner disk
Janiuk et al. (2015) (A&A):
  • Heartbeat oscillations => radiation pressure instability of accretion disk
  • Disc outflow (wind) => plausible mechanism to regulate (and stop) oscillations
  • Wind properties (Chandra) => 2 wind components with rates ~2.7 e17 g/s and 4.2e17 g/s
  • Launching sites => between 380 and 4700-5900 RG and 950 and 4200-4900RG
  • Modeling gives parameter (outflow rates) compatible with observations
  • Geometry of disc-corona-wind presented
Iyer et al. (2015) (ApJ):
  • Spectro-temporal study of RXTE and Swift data
  • 3 different methods => 8.7 MSun < MBH < 15.6 MSun @ 90% confidence

Last updated 17 Aug. 2015

Jerome Rodriguez