Space telescopes focusing hard X-rays up to 100-200 keV would bring breakthrough in our understanding of the most violent and energetic phenomena of the Universe, like those in the Active Galaxy Nuclei, the supernovae, or closer to us in the solar flares. Techniques of super-mirrors are emerging for that prospect. In parallel, technological developments in rupture shall be led to realize large focal planes with high pixel density and efficient up to 200 keV to be placed at the focal plane of these optical systems. This PhD thesis in space instrumentation consists in setting up and studying innovative hybrid detectors for the imaging spectroscopy in the 1-200 keV energy range, based on 250 µm-pitch pixelated cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductor detectors, point to point connected to spectroscopic readout channels of dot-matrix application specified integrated circuits (ASIC) designed in our institute. By means of experimental characterizations coupled to modern data analysis methods, and to tests in accelerators coupled to numerical simulations, the candidate will demonstrate and optimize the spectral resolution, the spatial resolution and the counting capabilities of these new devices.