The major part of our superconducting magnetism and hyperfrequency developments use very low temperatures. This requires as much to design and manage large cryogenic facilities as mastering thermodynamics, thermohydraulics as well as cryomechanical phenomena and heat transfer closer to our magnets and cavities.
Dedicated cryogenic test facilities support R & D activities concerning various heat transfer and heat exchange modes including, for the most innovative, oscillating heat pipes. For low power (limited to a few watts), we use autonomous cryogenic systems (cryogenerators) that can cool our prototypes either by conduction or condensation of helium. There is, in the same way, applications for which we liquefy or solidify hydrogen for the realization of targets useful for research in nuclear physics.
Superfluid helium at 1.8 K remains our standard refrigerant for high power (> 100 W) both in the field of magnets and cavities. Furthermore, we are involved in the cooling and testing of magnets for melting in the supercritical domain.