W7X station.

The task of the Cryogenics Laboratory and Test Stations (LCSE) is to master cryogenics technology applied to superconducting magnets, accelerating cavities, physics detectors (cryogenic target systems, calorimeters), and the production and distribution of liquid helium.

This expertise is applied to the design, construction, and operation of cryogenic facilities of various types and sizes. The fluids used at these facilities are helium I and II, nitrogen, argon, and hydrogen. Design and construction work focuses mainly on cryostats and the related cryodistribution function, as well as low-temperature refrigeration machines, ranging from cryogenerators to high-power helium refrigerators (cryoplants). Major technological developments focus on improving methods for cooling and maintaining low temperatures, for example, by optimizing thermal links or integrating the cryogenic loop or cryogenerator. They also include the development and integration of cryogenic targets in liquid or solid hydrogen for nuclear physics.

For its own development pursuits and to meet project needs, the laboratory operates several test and characterization stations that form a coherent system of 16 units used to determine the mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of various materials (insulation, composite materials, metal and superconducting alloys) at cryogenic temperatures, at high currents and in magnetic fields. They are also used to perform tests under nominal  conditions on complete cryogenic subassemblies (such as magnet cryostats and ryomodules) or their basic components (coil cold mass, RF cavities, instrumentation), in sizes ranging from a few millimeters to several meters.

More specific R&D activities are conducted in areas involving low-temperature heat transfer (helium II in porous media, pulsating heat pipe in nitrogen, cooling through simple conduction), two-phase flows (thermosiphon with helium I, nitrogen, etc.), and the thermohydraulics of magnet quench.

At the end of 2015, laboratory staff consisted of 15 engineers, including 1 PhD student, and 13 technicians.



#736 - Last update : 02/15 2019
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CELLO refrigerator for the JT-60SA test facility : The JT-60SA cold test facility was designed and constructed to validate the 18 superconducting magnets that will be installed on the JT-60SA tokamak at Naka in Japan. The “CELLO” HELIAL liquefier/refrigerator originally attached to the station used to test prototype magnets for the LHC has been moved. It now provides cooling for the JT-60SA test station and produces the liquid helium necessary for testing the magnets at nominal current. Its cooling power is around 500 W at 4.
Chemistry laboratory and clean-room (Orme des Merisiers) :     Chemistry laboratory Surface treatments for superconducting accelerator cavities. 1 fume hood for the treatment of cavities. 1 ultrasonic degreasing station (60 l). Ultra-pure water production plant with a capacity of 3 m3. 35 m2 ISO class 5 clean-room Assembly of cavities following high pressure rinsing.
Cryo/HF Supratech platform : The Cryo/HF Supratech station has cryogenic and hyper-frequency equipments[PO1] that can be used to develop the key subassemblies of superconducting accelerators such as superconducting cavities, power couplers and complete accelerator modules (e.g. cryomodules).
CRYOPULSE : Horizontal cryostat 6 m in length for characterizing flows and thermal performance by means of temperature and pressure measurements in cryogenic pulsating heat pipes up to 4 m in length. Power available for the loop: 200 W.
Diagnostics, vacuum and assembly laboratory (DIVA) : The laboratory is responsible for vacuum measurement, for research into the desorption of materials and the development of ultra-high vacuum techniques (assemblies and tests). Its equipment includes: ? An ultra-high vacuum oven that can reach temperatures up to 1200 °C at 10-6 Pa, with temperature uniformity at 900°C of ± 3°C. ? A desorption measurement bench for qualifying materials and developing cleaning procedures necessary for ultra-high vacuums.
Double bain : A cryostat using the Claudet double bath principle, for carrying out thermal studies on static pressurized superfluid helium up to a power of 10 W at 1.8 K with a maximum pressure of 1.5 bar(a) in a test volume of dimensions of diameter 200 mm x height 200 mm  
Hélial 4003 liquefier - refrigerator used with the W-7X test station : The W7-X test facility was used to validate the 70 superconducting magnets installed on the European magnetic confinement fusion research machine, the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator.   This test facility has two cryostats with a usable diameter of 5 m and a usable height of 4.1 m. The “4003” HELIAL liquefier, which has a capacity of around 200 W at 4.2 K, provides the cooling power for the test facility.
Hélial 4008 liquefier in the liquefaction station : In 2015, 131,000 liters of liquid helium were delivered to different laboratories on the CEA Saclay site and the surrounding area. The “4008” HELIAL liquefier, which has a capacity of around 70 l/hour, produces liquid helium in two tanks of 6,000 and 18,000 liters, giving flexibility for management of the liquefaction station.
Hélial 4012 Liquefier-Cooler connected to Supratech station : Liquefier production is around 170 or 70 litre/hour with or without nitrogen pre-cooling. A helium compressor 80g/s (1600 m3/h) and an Air Liquide cold box make up the liquefier. Its cooling power is around 80 Watt at 1.8 K
Insulation laboratory : Context Project technical support for insulation and winding of superconducting magnets.   The insulation laboratory is equipped with several technical means allowing for example to : design small coils, impregnate prototypes or characterization specimens, prepare superconducting cables before characterization via the dissolution of aluminum or copper, process resins and chemicals, perform characterizations at room temperature.
Insulation/impregnation laboratory : The insulation/impregnation laboratory provides technical support for SACM’s projects on insulation for superconducting magnets and their winding: production of small coils, impregnation of prototypes or characterization samples, preparation of superconducting cables prior to characterization by dissolving aluminum or copper, use of resins and chemicals, room temperature characterizations (calorimeter, tensiometer, rheometer, pycnometer), etc.
Measurement of Kapitza resistance and thermal conductivity :   Cell for measuring Kapitza resistance and thermal conductivity in superfluid helium between 1.7 K and 2.1 K on thin samples (0.5 mm max), up to 80 mm in diameter.  
Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity of Insulators and Conductors (MECTIC) : Context Thermal conductivity measurements on samples (Φ ≈ 30 mm) of insulating or conducting material by using the differential or integral method.
Measurements in pressurized superfluid helium at 1 atm : Double bath NED cryostat. Volume at 1.8 K: Diameter 250 mm x Height 300 mm.   Double bath Th0 cryostat. Volume at 1.8 K: Diameter 200 mm x Height 500 mm.
Mechanical test laboratory : The mechanical test laboratory can perform measurements at 300 K and cryogenic temperatures: 77 K (liquid nitrogen) and 4.2 K (liquid helium), for determining mechanical characteristics (modulus of elasticity, elastic limit, breaking load, rupture elongation, and fragility) of metals or composites (synthetic composites or highly anisotropic compounds such as superconductors), and the behavior of complete assemblies under flexion, traction, compression or slippage.
Mechanical test laboratory : Context  Mechanical tests at room temperature or cryogenic temperature: 77 K (liquid nitrogen) and 4.2 K (liquid helium). Determination of the mechanical characteristics (elasticity modulus, elastic limit, breaking load and stretch, fragility) of metal and composite materials, study of assembly behavior (bending, traction, compression and slippage).
Mechanical workshop : The mechanical workshop is more a prototype workshop than a production workshop. It is available for urging needs of experiments and in case of modification requirements. It makes available : 5 turning lathes, 5 millers, 1 reaming machine, 1 flat surface grinder, and other machines like drilling machines, sawing machines …
The SEHT test facility : The SEHT facility, which was created to generate an 8 T magnetic field in a large volume, uses a solenoid winding with an NbTi conductor assembled from double pancake coils cooled in a superfluid helium bath at 1.8 K and 1.2 bar absolute. The SEHT solenoid is a reconditioned superconducting coil previously used in the 35 T hybrid magnet at LNCMI in Grenoble.
Thermautonome : Context Characterization of single phase and two-phase flows (by measurements of pressure drop and wall temperature) along a vertical test section (h = 30 cm), in the ranges of temperature and pressure: 3 K  ≤ T ≤ 30 K, P ≤ 3 bars.
THERMAUTONOME : A circulation loop with recondensation by means of a cryogenerator, for characterizing single phase and two-phase flows by measuring pressure drop, and wall temperature increase along the wall of a 30 cm vertical test section. Cryogenerator: 1.5 W at 4.2 K. Pressure: from a few mbar to 3 bar. Temperature: from 3 K to 30 K. Max Power in the loop: 4 W at 10 K.
Thermosiphon test bench : Context Characterization of single phase and two-phase flows (by measurements of mass flow rate, volume ratio, pressure drop and wall temperature) along a vertical test section (h = 1.2 m) and a horizontal test section (Φ = 0.4 m) at the temperatures of liquid helium and nitrogen. The station offers a large versatility in the geometry of the cooling loop.
Ultra high vacuum laboratory : The ultra high vacuum laboratory takes charge of the vacuum calculations for accelerators, the research about material desorption and the development in ultra high vacuum techniques and vacuum theory. Ultra high vacuum oven : 1200°C, 10-6 Pa.
Winding laboratory : The winding laboratory, used for making small prototype coils, has a large capacity winding machine with a vertical axis, a winding machine with a horizontal axis and a winding machine with a vertical axis and a horizontal axis for making more complex coil geometries. Each of these machines has a brake to control the mechanical tension on the conductor. There is a 1500 metric tonne hydraulic press with a heating system for heating under mechanical stress (polymerization, bonding, etc.).


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