The observed tight correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) and the stellar mass of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) is now well constrained over the last 10 Gyr of look-back time. This so-called main sequence (MS), whose normalization declines from z~3 to 0, is commonly interpreted as evidence that SFGs are evolving primarily through a steady and long star-forming mode, likely sustained by the cold gas accretion along the cosmic web. Over the last decade, a plethora of studies have investigated within this framework the physical properties of SFGs along and across the MS, establishing key scaling relations between, e.g., the stellar mass, gas content, and/or morphology of SFGs in the SFR-stellar mass plane. In this talk I will review past and recent observational evidences of this new MS paradigm and how it has shaped our understanding of the evolution of massive galaxies. Then, I will present the limitations of this simple paradigm, and in particular how it fails to explain the more diverse than anticipated population of MS galaxies (e.g., starburst hidden within the MS), the importance of secondary parameters (e.g., environment) and the transition of SFGs to quiescence. I will conclude by presenting future observational opportunities that can be used to investigate this hidden complexity within the main sequence and to further unveil the physics involved in the evolution of massive galaxies over cosmic time.
Organizer: Carlos GOMEZ GUIJARRO