Programme d’observation extragalactique

de la mission spatiale XMM Newton. 


Extragalactic observation program

of the space mission XMM Newton.









Tableau de de Vassily Kandinsky qui apparait comme un visionnaire:

- le cercle représente  le champ de vue d'XMM

- le grand X, représente "rayons X" et symbolise les digrammes cosmologiques

- les cercles de différentes couleurs: les amas de galaxies vus en rayons X avec des temperatures différentes

- les petits points: les noyaux actifs de galaxies vus en rayons X

- les grands traits noirs fins: les grandes structure de l'univers 


#3015 - Last update : 10/04 2021


The XXL survey has mapped two extragalactic regions of 25 deg2, using 10 ks XMM observations down to a point-source sensitivity of ~ 5 10-15 erg/s/cm2 in the [0.5-2] keV band.

It is the largest XMM project approved to date (3Ms in December 2010, >6Ms in total).

As of December 2015, some 450 new galaxy clusters are detected out to z~1.5-2 as well as more than 22,000 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) out to z~4.           

The main goal of the project is to constrain the Dark Energy equation of state using clusters of galaxies. This survey will also have lasting legacy value for cluster scaling laws and studies of AGNs and X-ray background.

This project builds on the experience acquired during the ten years
XMM-LSS pilot survey. It is open to any scientist belonging to the international astronomical community, and interested in actively contributing to the general legacy effort. 


The two surveyed regions are:


  •     CFHTLS W1 centre:       2h23min    -4deg30' (J2000),  25 deg2

  •     BCS centre:                  23h30min  -55deg00' (J2000),  25 deg2

 Observations were completed in 2013


The XXL exposure ans sensitivity maps are available here

(Download a synthetic overview of the XXL project


#3032 - Last update : 10/04 2021



M. Pierre (CEA Saclay, principal investigator)

M. Birkinshaw (Univ. Bristol)
A. Evrard (Univ. Michigan)
C. Horellou (Chalmers Univ. of Technology)
A. Iovino (INAF-OAB, Brera)
C. Lidman (AAO, Epping)
S. Maurogordato (Obs. Nice)
S. Paltani (Univ. Geneva)
M. Plionis (Univ. Thessaloniki)

V. Smolcic (Univ. Zagreb)
J. Surdej (Univ. Liege)
C. Vignali (Univ. Bologna)
J. Willis (Univ. Victoria)









#3017 - Last update : 10/04 2021

The work is organised in working groups, with the following coodinators





X-ray processing : F. Pacaud

X-ray background : S. Snowden

General catalogue : L. Chiappetti, S. Maurogordato

Catalogue information : A. Elyiv, O. Melnyk, E. Pompei

Photometric redshifts : S. Paltani

Spectroscopic follow-up : C. Lidman, S. Murray, J. Willis

Redshift archival : C. Adami, L. Guennou

Radio follow-up : M. Birkinshaw, C. Horellou, V. Smolcic




Theory and simulations : A. Evrard


Clusters of galaxies (general) : M. Pierre

Cosmology : F. Pacaud, D.Rappetti

Mass measurements : G. Smith, F. Menanteau

z>>1 clusters: M. Bremer, J. Santos

The z~0.3-0.5 groups: B. Poggianti, F. Gastaldello


AGNs (general) : M. Plionis

Environmental studies : S. Raychaudhury, O. Melnyk

Large scale structure : N. Cappelluti, A. Elyiv

Evolution : I. Georgantopoulos, R. Hickox

Miscellaneous : A. Comastri

Cosmology: S. Basilakos, A. Goobar





Birmigham group (I. McCarthy et al)

Michigan group (A. Evrard et al)

Oxford group (J. Devriendt et al)

Princeton group (D. Spergel et al)

Meudon group (P.S. Corasaniti et al)


#3169 - Last update : 10/04 2021
#3018 - Last update : 10/04 2021
#3019 - Last update : 10/04 2021

Refereed publications


  Third series of XXL papers (open)


   Second series of XXL papers, December 2018

  • F. Marulli, A. Veropalumbo, M. Sereno, L. Moscardini, F. Pacaud, M. Pierre, M. Plionis, A. Cappi, C. Adami, S. Alis et al. (13 more), The XXL Survey - XVI. The clustering of X-ray selected galaxy clusters at z ~ 0.3, 2018 A&A 620, A1
  • A. B. Mantz, Z. Abdulla, S. W. Allen, J. E. Carlstrom, C. H. A. Logan, D. P. Marrone, B. J. Maughan, J. Willis, F. Pacaud and M. Pierre, The XXL Survey - XVII. X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel’dovich properties of the redshift 2.0 galaxy cluster XLSSC 122, 2018 A&A 620, A2
  • Andrew Butler, Minh Huynh, Jacinta Delhaize, Vernesa Smolcic, Anna Kapinska, Dinko Milakovic, Mladen Novak, Nikola Baran, Andrew O'Brien, Lucio Chiappetti et al. (5 more), The XXL Survey - XVIII. ATCA 2.1 GHz radio source catalogue and source counts for the XXL-South field, 2018 A&A 620, A3
  • E. Koulouridis, L. Faccioli, A. M. C. Le Brun, M. Plionis, I. G. McCarthy, M. Pierre, A. Akylas, I. Georgantopoulos, S. Paltani, C. Lidman et al. (4 more), The XXL Survey - XIX. A realistic population of simulated X-ray AGN: Comparison of models with observations, 2018 A&A 620, A4
  • C. Adami, P. Giles, E. Koulouridis, F. Pacaud, C. A. Caretta, M. Pierre, D. Eckert, M. E. Ramos-Ceja, F. Gastaldello, S. Fotopoulou et al. (47 more), The XXL Survey - XX. The 365 cluster catalogue, 2018 A&A 620, A5
  • O. Melnyk, A. Elyiv, V. Smolcic, M. Plionis, E. Koulouridis, S. Fotopoulou, L. Chiappetti, C. Adami, N. Baran, A. Butler et al. (9 more), The XXL Survey - XXI. The environment and clustering of X-ray AGN in the XXL-South field, 2018 A&A 620, A6
  • V. Guglielmo, B. M. Poggianti, B. Vulcani, C. Adami, F. Gastaldello, S. Ettori, S. Fotoupoulou, E. Koulouridis, M. E. Ramos Ceja, P. Giles et al. (35 more), The XXL Survey - XXII. The XXL-North spectrophotometric sample and galaxy stellar mass function in X-ray detected groups and clusters, 2018 A&A 620, A7
  • Arya Farahi, Valentina Guglielmo, August E. Evrard, Bianca M. Poggianti, Christophe Adami, Stefano Ettori, Fabio Gastaldello, Paul A. Giles, Ben J. Maughan, David Rapetti et al. (27 more), The XXL Survey - XXIII. The mass scale of XXL clusters from ensemble spectroscopy, 2018 A&A 620, A8
  • L. Faccioli, F. Pacaud, J.-L. Sauvageot, M. Pierre, L. Chiappetti, N. Clerc, R. Gastaud, E. Koulouridis, A. M. C. Le Brun and A. Valotti, The XXL Survey - XXIV. The final detection pipeline, 2018 A&A 620, A9
  • F. Pacaud, M. Pierre, J.-B. Melin, C. Adami, A. E. Evrard, S. Galli, F. Gastaldello, B. J. Maughan, M. Sereno, S. Alis et al. (19 more), The XXL Survey - XXV. Cosmological analysis of the C1 cluster number counts, 2018 A&A 620, A10
  • Paolo Ciliegi, Nika Jurlin, Andrew Butler, Jacinta Delhaize, Sotiria Fotopoulou, Minh Huynh, Angela Iovino, Vernesa Smolcic, Lucio Chiappetti and Marguerite Pierre, The XXL Survey - XXVI. Optical and near-infrared identifications of the ATCA 2.1 GHz radio sources in the XXL-S Field, 2018 A&A 620, A11
  • L. Chiappetti, S. Fotopoulou, C. Lidman, L. Faccioli, F. Pacaud, A. Elyiv, S. Paltani, M. Pierre, M. Plionis, C. Adami et al. (28 more), The XXL Survey - XXVII. The 3XLSS point source catalogue, 2018 A&A 620, A12
  • M. Ricci, C. Benoist, S. Maurogordato, C. Adami, L. Chiappetti, F. Gastaldello, V. Guglielmo, B. Poggianti, M. Sereno, R. Adam et al. (6 more), The XXL Survey - XXVIII. Galaxy luminosity functions of the XXL-N clusters, 2018 A&A 620, A13
  • Vernesa Smolcic, Huib Intema, Bruno Slaus, Somak Raychaudhury, Mladen Novak, Cathy Horellou, Lucio Chiappetti, Jacinta Delhaize, Mark Birkinshaw, Marco Bondi et al. (11 more), The XXL Survey - XXIX. GMRT 610 MHz continuum observations, 2018 A&A 620, A14
  • V. Guglielmo, B. M. Poggianti, B. Vulcani, A. Moretti, J. Fritz, F. Gastaldello, C. Adami, C. A. Caretta, J. Willis, E. Koulouridis et al. (27 more), The XXL Survey - XXX. Characterisation of the XLSSsC N01 supercluster and analysis of the galaxy stellar populations, 2018 A&A 620, A15
  • Andrew Butler, Minh Huynh, Ivan Delvecchio, Anna Kapinska, Paolo Ciliegi, Nika Jurlin, Jacinta Delhaize, Vernesa Smolcic, Shantanu Desai, Sotiria Fotopoulou et al. (3 more), The XXL Survey - XXXI. Classification and host galaxy properties of 2.1 GHz ATCA XXL-S radio sources, 2018 A&A 620, A16
  • M. Plionis, L. Koutoulidis, E. Koulouridis, L. Moscardini, C. Lidman, M. Pierre, C. Adami, L. Chiappetti, L. Faccioli, S. Fotopoulou et al. (2 more), The XXL Survey - XXXII. Spatial clustering of the XXL-S AGN, 2018 A&A 620, A17
  • C. H. A. Logan, B. J. Maughan, M. N. Bremer, P. Giles, M. Birkinshaw, L. Chiappetti, N. Clerc, L. Faccioli, E. Koulouridis, F. Pacaud et al. (4 more), The XXL Survey - XXXIII. Chandra constraints on the AGN contamination of z > 1 XXL galaxy clusters, 2018 A&A 620, A18
  • C. Horellou, H. T. Intema, V. Smolcic, A. Nilsson, F. Karlsson, C. Krook, L. Tolliner, C. Adami, C. Benoist, M. Birkinshaw et al. (14 more), The XXL Survey - XXXIV. Double Irony in XXL-North: a tale of two radio galaxies in a supercluster at z = 0.14, 2018 A&A 620, A19
  • E. Koulouridis, M. Ricci, P. Giles, C. Adami, M. Ramos-Ceja, M. Pierre, M. Plionis, C. Lidman, I. Georgantopoulos, L. Chiappetti et al. (8 more), The XXL Survey - XXXV. The role of cluster mass in AGN activity, 2018 A&A 620, A20


  First series of XXL papers, July 2016

    Previous papers

Conference presentations


(with on-line presentation links if available)

  • Lieu et al., 2014: XXL Bright Sample: Weak Lensing MT scaling relation of groups and clusters, Madrid, November, 4-7 2014

XXL related PhDs


Publication list of the XMM-LSS project


#3020 - Last update : 10/04 2021
#3022 - Last update : 10/04 2021

R. Adam (Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Nice, FR)

C. Adami (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique, Marseille, FR)

S. Alis (Faculty of Science, Istanbul University, TR)

B. Altieri (European Space Astronomy Center, Madrid, ES)

C. Baguley (University of Bristol, UK)

N. Baran (University of Zagreb, HR)

C. Benoist (Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Nice, FR)

S. Bhargava (Département d'Astrophysique CEA, Saclay, FR)

M. Birkishaw (University of Bristol, UK)

W. Black (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, US)

A. Bongiorno (Rome Observatory, Italy)

M. Bremer (University of Bristol, UK)

A. Cappi (INAF-OABO, Bologna, IT)

C. Caretta (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique, Marseille, FR)

N. Cerardi (Département d'Astrophysique CEA, Saclay, FR)

L. Chiappetti (INAF-IASF, Milano, IT)

P. Ciliegi (INAF-OABO, Bologna, IT)

N. Clerc (MPE, Garching, DE)

P. S. Corasaniti (Observatoire de Paris, FR)

J. Crossett (Leiden University, NL)

J. Coupon (ISCD, Geneva Observatory, CH)

J. Delhaize (University of Zagreb, HR)

I. Delvecchio (University of Zagreb, HR)

Sh. Desai (University of Illinois, US)

J. Devriendt  (University of Oxford, UK)

Y. Dubois  (University of Oxford, UK)

D. Eckert (ISCD, Geneva Observatory, CH)

S. Ettori (Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, IT)

A. E. Evrard  (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, US)

A. Farahi (Carnegie Mellon University, US)

C. Ferrari (Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, FR)

S. Fotopoulou (ISCD, Geneva Observatory, CH)

C. Garrel (Département d'Astrophysique CEA, Saclay, FR)

F. Gastadello (INAF-IASF, Milan, IT)

I. Georgantopoulos (Observatory of Athens, GR)

P. Giles (University of Bristol, UK)

C. Horellou (Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala, SE)

M. Huynh (University of Western Austalia, AU)

A. Iovino (INAF-OAB, Brera, IT)

N. Jerlin (University of Zagreb, HR)

A. Le Brun (Département d'Astrophysique CEA, Saclay, FR)

J.-P. Le Fevre (Département d'Informatique CEA, Saclay, FR)

M. Lieu (European Space Astronomy Center, Madrid, ES)

G. Lingsong (ISCD, Geneva Observatory, CH)

C. Logan  (University of Bristol, UK)



M. Kilbinger (Département d'Astrophysique CEA, Saclay, FR)

K.  Kolokythas (IUCAA, Pune, IN)

E. Koulouridis (National Observatory of Athens, GR)

Ch. Lidman (Australian Astronomical Observatory, Epping, AU)

F. Marulli (University of Bologna, IT)

B. Maughan (University of Bristol, UK)

A. Mantz (Stanford University, US)

V. Masoura (Observatory of Athens, GR)

S. Maurogordato (Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Nice, FR)

I. McCarthy (University of Liverpool, UK)

S. McGee (University of Birmingham, UK)

J.-B. Melin (Département de Physique des Particules CEA, Saclay, FR)

O. Melnyk  (University of Zagreb, HR)

L. Moscardini (University of Bologna, IT)

M. Novak (University of Zagreb, HR)

F. Pacaud (Argelander-Institut fur Astronomie, Bonn, DE)

S. Paltani (ISCD, Geneva Observatory, CH)

E. Piconcelli (INAF-OAR, Roma, IT)

M. Pierre (Département d'Astrophysique CEA, Saclay, FR)

M. Plionis (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, GR)

B. Poggianti (Observatory of Padova, IT)

D. Pomarede (Département d'Informatique CEA, Saclay, FR)

E. Pompei (European Southern Observatory, Garching, DE)

T. Ponman (University of Birmingham, UK)

E. Pouliasis (National Observatory of Athens, GR)

M. E. Ramos Ceja (Argelander-Institut fur Astronomie, Bonn, DE)

P. Ranalli (University of Lund, SE)

D. Rapetti (Copenhagen University, DK)

S. Raychaudhury (University of Birmingham, UK)

T. Reiprich (Argelander-Institut fur Astronomie, Bonn, DE)

M. Ricci (Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Nice, FR)

D. Rosario (Durham University, UK)

H. Rottgering (Leiden Observatory, NL)

T. Sadibekova (Département d'Astrophysique CEA, Saclay, FR)

J.-L. Sauvageot (Département d'Astrophysique CEA, Saclay, FR)

C. Schimd (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique, Marseille, FR)

M. Sereno (University of Bologna, IT)

G.P. Smith (University of Birmingham, UK)

B. Slaus (University of Zagreb, HR)

V. Smolcic (University of Zagreb, HR)

J. Surdej  (University of Liege, BE)

A. Trudeau (University of Victoria, CA)

K. Umetsu (ASIAA, Taipei, TW)

P. Valageas (Institut de Physique Theorique du CEA, Saclay, FR)

I. Valtchanov (European Space Astronomy Center, Madrid, ES)

A. Veropalumbo (University of Bologna, IT)

C. Vignali (University of Bologna, IT)

J. Willis (University of Victoria, CA)


#3077 - Last update : 10/04 2021
- The XLSSC-105 cosmic furnace

Joint XMM-HSC Green Bank  press release





- Second series of articles, December 2018


A&A special issue


ESA Space science image of the week (Oct. 8th, 2018)


- First series of XXL articles, July 2016

ESA press release

ESO press release

A&A press release

A survey of the Universe, XXL size


- What are the XXL clusters (2012)?





- A century of X-ray cluster astronomy (1913-2013)








"Interactive Visualization of 3D Redshift Surveys with SDvision"

by D. Pomarède and M. Pierre


Published in the Proceedings of the IAU Symposium 277 Tracing the Ancestry of Galaxies

(on the land of our ancestors), 2010,Vol.6, Symposium S277, p.154,

Cambridge Journals, ed. C. Carignan, F. Combes, K.C. Freeman.




Visual comparison of the XMM-LSS and CFHTLS Surveys.

Click this picture to download the video (20.8Mb)


 The three-dimensional visualization of redshift surveys is a key player in the comprehension of the structuration of the cosmic web. The SDvision software package, intended primarily for the visualization of massive cosmological simulations, has been extended to provide an interactive visual representation of different classes of redshift surveys, with the objective to enable direct comparisons between the rare highest-density peaks traced by the clusters of galaxies found in the XMM-LSS Survey and the densely populated catalogues of galaxy photometric redshifts. We present the various possibilities offered by this tool in terms of filtering of the data, reconstruction of density fields, interactivity and visual rendering, including various techniques such as ray-casting, isosurfaces, slicing and texturing. This is illustrated using the C1 and C2 samples of the XMM-LSS Survey, and the publicly released COSMOS and CFHTLS photometric redshift Catalogs. Comparisons with published results are presented and discussed. (download pdf)












#3151 - Last update : 10/04 2021




Any scientist is welcome to enter the consortium in order to participate in the data analysis and science activities. Privileged access to the entire XXL data set will be granted to all consortium members.

For further information, contact the PI.






#3021 - Last update : 10/04 2021




XXL is an international project based around an XMM Very Large Programme surveying two 25 deg2 extragalactic fields at a depth of ~6 x 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 in the [0.5-2] keV band for point-like sources.
The XXL website is http://irfu.cea.fr/xxl. Multi-band information and spectroscopic follow-up of the X-ray sources are obtained through a number of survey programmes, summarised at http://xxlmultiwave.pbworks.com/.

*** Append here any specific observatory acknowledgements (XMM, ESO, CFHT, etc.) pertaining to the data used in the paper in question, as well as acknowledgements to the relevant funding agencies. ***







#3289 - Last update : 10/04 2021
TEAM SITE (private)



  Wiki TEAM SITE (private)






#3036 - Last update : 10/04 2021



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