Résumé du preprint Irfu-15-73

Micromegas: a tracking detector for high energy physics and beyond (Habilitation à diriger les recherches - HDR)
This document presents an introduction to the Micromegas detector used in high energy physics trackers. The first chapter reminds basic principles of gaseous detectors, from the ionization to the signal formation on the readout elements. The second chapter provides a hands-on approach for the manufacturing, the operation and the characterization of this detector, describing its main performance and how to measure them. I then review in Chapter 3 the methods and algorithms used nowadays in track reconstruction. Though this is not directly linked to the Micromegas itself, tracking is an essential part of most of the modern physics experiments, and helps to better understand the importance of detectors performance. Chapter 4 is dedicated to discharge issues, and presents in particular a Geant4-based model which offers a quantitative explanation of the discharge phenomenon in beams. The last chapter is devoted to the so-called genetic multiplexing invented to reduce the electronics required by Micromegas detectors, as well as its numerous applications which are emerging in the field of muon tomography.